Co-infection and enterovirus B: post EV-A71 mass vaccination scenario in China - BMC Infectious Diseases  BMC Infectious DiseasesView Full Coverage on Google News
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common child infectious disease caused by more than 20 enterovirus (EV) serotypes. In recent years, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has been replaced by Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) to become the predominant serotype. Multiple EV serotypes co-circulate in HFMD epidemics, and this study aimed to investigate the etiological epidemic characteristics of an HFMD outbreak in Kunming, China in 2019. The clinical samples of 459 EV-associated HFMD patients in 2019 were used to amplify the VP1 gene region by the three sets of primers and identify serotypes using the molecular biology method. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the VP1 gene. Three hundred and forty-eight cases out of 459 HFMD patients were confirmed as EV infection. Of these 191 (41.61%) were single EV infections and 34.20% had co-infections. The EVs were assigned to 18 EV serotypes, of which CV-A6 was predominant (11.33%), followed by CV-B1 (8.93%), CV-A4 (5.23%), CV-A9 (4.58%), CV-A 16 (3.49%) and CV-A10 and CVA5 both 1.96%. Co-infection of CV-A6 with other EVs was present in 15.25% of these cases, followed by co-infection with CV-A16 and other EVs. The VP1 sequences used in the phylogenetic analyses showed that the CV-A6, CV-B1 and CV-A4 sequences belonged to the sub-genogroup D3 and genogroups F and E, respectively. Co-circulation and co-infection of multiple serotypes were the etiological characteristic of the HFMD epidemic in Kunming China in 2019 with CV-A-6, CV-B1 and CV-A4 as the predominant serotypes. This is the first report of CV-B1 as a predominant serotype in China and may provide valuable information for the diagnosis, prevention and control of HFMD.Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common child infectious disease caused by more than 20 enterovirus (EV) serotypes. In recent years, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has been replaced by Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) to become the predominant serotype. Multiple EV serotypes co-circulate in HFMD epidemics, and this study aimed to investigate the etiological epidemic characteristics of an HFMD outbreak in Kunming, China in 2019. Methods The clinical samples of 459 EV-associated HFMD patients in 2019 were used to amplify the VP1 gene region by the three sets of primers and identify serotypes using the molecular biology method. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the VP1 gene. Results Three hundred and forty-eight cases out of 459 HFMD patients were confirmed as EV infection. Of these 191 (41.61%) were single EV infections and 34.20% had co-infections. The EVs were assigned to 18 EV serotypes, of which CV-A6 was predominant (11.33%), followed by CV-B1 (8.93%), CV-A4 (5.23%), CV-A9 (4.58%), CV-A 16 (3.49%) and CV-A10 and CVA5 both 1.96%. Co-infection of CV-A6 with other EVs was present in 15.25% of these cases, followed by co-infection with CV-A16 and other EVs. The VP1 sequences used in the phylogenetic analyses showed that the CV-A6, CV-B1 and CV-A4 sequences belonged to the sub-genogroup D3 and genogroups F and E, respectively. Conclusion Co-circulation and co-infection of multiple serotypes were the etiological characteristic of the HFMD epidemic in Kunming China in 2019 with CV-A-6, CV-B1 and CV-A4 as the predominant serotypes. This is the first report of CV-B1 as a predominant serotype in China and may provide valuable information for the diagnosis, prevention and control of HFMD.

Co-infection and enterovirus B: post EV-A71 mass vaccination scenario in China | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text

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